LRZ uses the modules approach to manage the user environment for different software versions. This is the standard method available for user environment management on all Linux-based LRZ HPC platforms. The distinct advantage of the modules approach is that the user is no longer required to explicitly specify paths for different executable versions, and try to keep the MANPATH and related environment variables coordinated. With the modules approach, users simply 'load' and 'unload' modules to control their environment.
Table of contents
- Details on Setup and Restrictions
- Module suboptions
- Versioned module setup on LRZ systems
- Initialization and writing your own module files
- Naming Conventions
- Support and Sources of Information on Modules
Modules provide an easy mechanism for managing the user's environment (PATH, MANPATH, and LD_LIBRARY_PATH, to name a few). To perform this in the current shell, the user types commands like
module load <package>
(making the settings for <package> available),
module unload <package>
(removing the settings for <package>).
On the LRZ HPC systems, setting up of the modules package is performed automatically at login. This includes
making the module command (as described below) available
loading a default set of module files: The exact set depends on the platform used.
Details on Setup and Restrictions
In order to impose some structure on the large number of provided modules, a number of module classes has been defined, one of which each module falls into:
applications: third party application programs will be entered here
compilers: programs for converting language source to machine code
environment: modules for providing LRZ specific environment variables
graphics: modules for providing graphics and visualization related functionality
- io_tools: modules for I/O related libraries and tools
libraries: performance and functionality libraries
parallel: access to parallelization software, especially MPI
tools: development, tuning and debugging aids
There is a further, special extfiles category which will be used e.g., for applications with a rapidly changing profile or for testing. Please note that modules in this area are not guaranteed any support; also they may be removed on short order.
Generating new shells
While the environment generated within a shell should be inherited to newly generated ones (either the same shell, or other shells), the module command itself may not be. We recommend inserting the following lines into your shell init script (e.g. .bashrc for bash, or $ENV for ksh):
typeset -f module > /dev/null
if [ $? != 0 -a -r /etc/profile.d/modules.sh ] ; then
Note that this will provide you with the same set of loaded modules as given last in the calling shell.
Using modules in batch jobs
The modules package is loaded by default at login. However, the typical batch systems are not able to reliably load the modules package. Hence, if you want to use modules within batch scripts, please do not forget to issue the following command as the first line of your script:
if your are a sh/bash/ksh user, and
in case your script is csh derived.
Here is an overview of the most important command options:
- module list
- This lists all the modules which are currently loaded into the users' environment.
- module avail
- This option lists all the modules which are available to be loaded. Notice that many of them have version numbers associated with them. Modules makes it easy to switchbetween compiler/application/library versions. The module name without a version number is the production default.
Additional switches are availabe for this suboption:
- module avail -d will only list the default versions
- module avail -c <module_class> will only list modules from the specified class of modules.
- module help modulefile
- If a module looks interesting, to get more information use this command to display the `help' information contained within the given module file.
% module help gaussian Module Specific Help for /lrz/sys/share/modules/files/applications/gaussian/03.D.01: modulefile "gaussian/03.D.01" Enable the usage of Gaussian QC software package. Documentation on LRZ Web Server at http://www.lrz.de/services/software/chemie/gaussian.
- module show modulefile
- Use this command to see exactly what a given modulefile will do to your environment, such as what will be added to the PATH, MANPATH, etc. environment variables.
- module load modulefile
- This adds one or more modulefiles to the user's current environment. It does so silently, unless there is a problem with a modulefile. For example,
% module load gaussian
- will make the Gaussian package available for your use. Please also note that
- some modules may automatically load others if a package depends on some other package to be available. Unloading dependent modules may give you trouble!
- Certain default modules should also not be unloaded, since your environment will not function properly without the settings performed there.
- module unload modulefile
- This removes any listed modules from the user's current environment. The modules can be removed in any order. It is also possible to specify more than one module to be removed.
% module unload gaussian
- will undo any environment variable settings performed during a preceding load of the module of the same name.
- module switch modulefile_old modulefile_new
- This command performs a transition from modulefile_old to modulefile_new with a single command. Note that this is not the same as an unload followed by a load, since all modules which were loaded after modulefile_old will usually also be reloaded. If this causes difficulties, you may need to revert to explicitly perform an unload/load sequence.
- module purge
- This command removes all modules from your environment. On the LRZ HPC systems, this means that the environment becomes unusable. Therefore, after a purge, you should issue the command
- module load lrz
- before loading or unloading any further modules.
To get a complete list of command options you can type module help on your command prompt.
Using modules from Perl
It is possible to use the module command also from non-shell scripting languages. In the case of Perl, a LRZ specific package is available. Here is an example on how to use this:
#! /usr/bin/perl use lib "/lrz/sys/share/modules/init"; use Environment_Modules; module("load","intel mkl"); module("list"); system("make myprog"); system("./dosomething");
Note the following details:
Use standard perl function call syntax with brackets, especially when specifying more than one argument
In contrast to the shell setup, only the LRZ administrative modules are loaded. Please load all other required modules yourself.
Within Perl, the environment variables are accessible via the %ENV hash.
All environment variables will be propagated to processes called e.g., via system. Hence, you can use these variables in Makefiles and scripts which are executed/called from Perl.
Some additional utilities which are provided specifically with the LRZ installation are described in this section.
ismoduleloaded: if issued with an argument, will tell whether that module is loaded. If the argument is a versioned module name, the exact version will be checked, otherwise only whether any version of the given module is loaded. Output is a "YES" or "NO" to stdout as well as an error exit of 0 or 1, respectively. If the -s command line switch is provided, output to stdout is suppressed. If no module argument is given, "YES" will be written to stdout if any module is loaded, "NO" otherwise.
defaultversion: if issued with a module name as argument (with or without a version number), this will return the default version of the module on STDOUT. Error 1 is returned if the module does not exist.
loadedversion: if issued with a module name as argument (with or without a version number), this will return the presently loaded version of the module on STDOUT. Error 1 is returned if a module of the given name is not loaded. The version number on the argument need not be the correct or even an existing one.
removemodules.[c]sh: this can be used to completely remove all module settings from your environment by sourcing the appropriate version into your running shell; all modules are unloaded, and the module alias as well as all module-related variables are unset. Beware that this will rather cripple your environment since many important settings are performed via LRZ administrative modules.
Versioned module setup on LRZ systems
For each package a module is provided for, it may happen that more than one version is available. In this case, there will be
a default module responsible for setting up the main production version.
Example: the module default file for setting up the quantum chemical package "Gaussian" is gaussian
some module files with the same basename as the default, followed by a "/" sign and then a version number.
Example: While the default version of Gaussian may be 03.D.01, it is possible to instead use the 03.C.02 version by loading the module gaussian/03.C.02
Note that the "/" convention for separating version information from the module name allows you to perform e.g.,
module switch intel intel/16.0
correctly regardless which version of intel is loaded prior to the above command.
Please note that software packages as well as the module system undergo a maintenance and update process. As a consequence, the following may happen at LRZ HPC staff's discretion and - unless the user impact is considered very large - without special announcement:
- the default version of a software package may change; the method of loading the default module will however normally stay the same.
- the availability and the module name of non-default versions of a software package may change
We apologize for the potential impact on processing of user jobs, but given the large number of packages we make available we presently see no alternative. For a given software package, please check out its documentation page on the LRZ web server for updates and/or use the module avail <package_name> command to see the presently available releases.
Initialization and writing your own module files
A user can perform her/his own module initializations at login time using a shell-specific script in the $HOME/.modules subdirectory. This script must have the same name as your login shell, i.e., $HOME/.modules/$SHELL, and will typically contain
extension of the MODULEPATH environment variable (e.g., via the module use command) to contain some subdirectory where a user's own module files can reside
loading of additional LRZ or self-written modules at login as needed
When loading a module, package specific environment variables follow the conventions given in this section. In the following table, the placeholder PAC is used for the package name.
base directory for package
library directory for package, usually $PAC_BASE/lib
library setting for (static) linking, typically $PAC_BASE/lib/lib<library_name.a>
library setting for dynamic linking, typically -L$PAC_BASE/lib -l<library_name>
include setting for compilation, usually -I$PAC_BASE/include
directory containing documentation (in other than man or info format)
URL referring to location of package-specific documentation on the LRZ WWW server.
Support and Sources of Information on Modules
If you experience problems using the module package, please notify the LRZ HPC support team.
Further information on modules can be found by reading the man pages on the LRZ HPC systems (module (1), modulefile (4)).